Laboratory tests on soil adopt simplified stress paths compared to real world counterparts due to mechanical limitations. This study investigates the deformation of granular material under combined principal stress value and orientation change in full 3D space using the discrete element method. Such stress paths are achieved by applying a 3D force line boundary condition on spherical granular material samples. Continuous cyclic tests with stress paths restricted in a fixed plane and in full 3D space, simulating a bidirectional seismic stress path, are both conducted. The importance of taking both principal stress value and orientation change into consideration is highlighted. In the tests, the greatest deformation is observed under pure stress orientation change, while the smallest deformation is observed when the principal stress axes are fixed. The change of stress value and orientation in 3D is also shown to result in deformations different to those within a fixed plane. The origins of these differences are found to be associated with difference in shear modulus, dilatancy, and non-coaxiality at the macroscale, and particle contact and fabric anisotropy at the microscale.

Revised:

Accepted:

Published online:

^{1}; Xue, Long

^{1}; Wang, Rui

^{1}; Zhang, Jian-Min

^{1}

@article{OGEO_2022__3__A4_0, author = {He, Zhan and Xue, Long and Wang, Rui and Zhang, Jian-Min}, title = {Response of granular material under combined principal stress value and orientation change in {3D} space}, journal = {Open Geomechanics}, eid = {4}, publisher = {Alert Geomaterials}, volume = {3}, year = {2022}, doi = {10.5802/ogeo.11}, language = {en}, url = {https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.11/} }

TY - JOUR AU - He, Zhan AU - Xue, Long AU - Wang, Rui AU - Zhang, Jian-Min TI - Response of granular material under combined principal stress value and orientation change in 3D space JO - Open Geomechanics PY - 2022 VL - 3 PB - Alert Geomaterials UR - https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.11/ DO - 10.5802/ogeo.11 LA - en ID - OGEO_2022__3__A4_0 ER -

%0 Journal Article %A He, Zhan %A Xue, Long %A Wang, Rui %A Zhang, Jian-Min %T Response of granular material under combined principal stress value and orientation change in 3D space %J Open Geomechanics %D 2022 %V 3 %I Alert Geomaterials %U https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.11/ %R 10.5802/ogeo.11 %G en %F OGEO_2022__3__A4_0

He, Zhan; Xue, Long; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Jian-Min. Response of granular material under combined principal stress value and orientation change in 3D space. Open Geomechanics, Volume 3 (2022), article no. 4, 15 p. doi : 10.5802/ogeo.11. https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.11/

[1] Principal Stress Rotation: A Missing Parameter, Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Volume 106 (1980) no. 4, pp. 419-433 | DOI

[2] Stress and strain in granular assemblies, Mechanics of Materials, Volume 22 (1996) no. 3, pp. 165-177 | DOI

[3] Analysing the effect of principal stress rotation on railway track settlement by discrete element method, GÃ©otechnique, Volume 70 (2020) no. 9, pp. 803-821 | DOI

[4] A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies, GÃ©otechnique, Volume 29 (1979) no. 1, pp. 47-65 | DOI

[5] Quantification of large and localized deformation in granular materials, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume 49 (2012) no. 13, pp. 1741-1752 | DOI

[6] The deformation of granular materials under repeated traffic load by discrete element modelling, European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Volume 24 (2020) no. 8, 104315, pp. 1135-1160 | DOI

[7] Deformation characteristics of inherently anisotropic granular media under repeated traffic loading: a DEM study, Acta Geotechnica (2022), pp. 1-19 | DOI | Zbl

[8] SAND RESPONSE TO CYCLIC ROTATION OF PRINCIPAL STRESS DIRECTIONS AS INDUCED BY WAVE LOADS, Soils and Foundations, Volume 23 (1983) no. 4, B12401, pp. 11-26 | DOI

[9] PFC 3D-User manual, Itasca Consulting Group (2018), p. 435 | DOI

[10] CYCLIC SIMPLE SHEAR TESTS ON SATURATED SAND IN MULTI-DIRECTIONAL LOADING, Soils and Foundations, Volume 20 (1980) no. 1, pp. 45-59 | DOI

[11] ANALYSIS OF WAVE-INDUCED LIQUEFACTION IN SEABED DEPOSITS OF SAND, Soils and Foundations, Volume 24 (1984) no. 3, pp. 85-100 | DOI

[12] DEM analysis of undrained cyclic simple shear test on saturated sand, Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, Volume 8 (2020) no. 12, pp. 485-488 | DOI | Zbl

[13] Rotational shear effects on ground earthquake response, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 16 (1997) no. 1, B08203, pp. 9-19 | DOI

[14] Numerical investigation of granular material behaviour under rotational shear, GÃ©otechnique, Volume 60 (2010) no. 5, pp. 381-394 | DOI

[15] Macro deformation and micro structure of 3D granular assemblies subjected to rotation of principal stress axes, Granular Matter, Volume 18 (2016) no. 3, pp. 1-20 | DOI | MR

[16] DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF ANISOTROPIC DENSE SAND UNDER PRINCIPAL STRESS AXES ROTATION, Soils and Foundations, Volume 26 (1986) no. 1, pp. 36-52 | DOI | MR | Zbl

[17] DEFORMATION PREDICTION FOR ANISOTROPIC SAND DURING THE ROTATION OF PRINCIPAL STRESS AXES, Soils and Foundations, Volume 26 (1986) no. 3, pp. 42-56 | DOI | MR | Zbl

[18] Flow Deformation of Sands Subjected to Principal Stress Rotation, Soils and Foundations, Volume 38 (1998) no. 2, pp. 115-128 | DOI | Zbl

[19] , IUTAM Conference on Deformation and Flow of Granular Materials, 1982 (1982), pp. 63-68

[20] Quantitative prediction of discrete element models on complex loading paths, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Volume 43 (2019) no. 5, pp. 858-887 | DOI | Zbl

[21] Discrete element method analysis of non-coaxial flow under rotational shear, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Volume 38 (2014) no. 14, pp. 1519-1540 | DOI | MR | Zbl

[22] Undrained strength of sand undergoing cyclic rotation of principal stress axes, Soils and Foundations, Volume 25 (1985) no. 2, pp. 135-147 | DOI | Zbl

[23] Dependency of Dilatancy Ratio on Fabric Anisotropy in Granular Materials, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Volume 145 (2019) no. 10, p. 04019076 | DOI

[24] Deformation of Granular Material under Continuous Rotation of Stress Principal Axes, International Journal of Geomechanics, Volume 19 (2019) no. 4, 103732, p. 04019017 | DOI | MR | Zbl

[25] , Recent Developments of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics in Theory and Practice (2020), 103732, pp. 136-165 | DOI | MR | Zbl

[26] Discrete element simulations of drained granular material response under multidirectional rotational shear, Computers and Geotechnics, Volume 139 (2021), p. 104375 | DOI

[27] 3D DEM simulation of principal stress rotation in different planes of cross-anisotropic granular materials, International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Volume 43 (2019) no. 14, pp. 2227-2250 | DOI

[28] Undrained anisotropy and rotational shear in granular soil, GÃ©otechnique, Volume 57 (2007) no. 4, pp. 371-384 | DOI | Zbl

[29] Analysis of soil liquefaction using centrifuge tests of a site subjected to biaxial shaking, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 114 (2018), pp. 229-241 | DOI

*Cited by Sources: *