Most triaxial tests are fraught with substantial membrane penetration errors. A simple correction procedure for data obtained from various tests is proposed. Correction formulas for the membrane penetration error have been derived for different types of tests including not perfectly saturated soils. In particular, a correction of the undrained cyclic stress paths is presented in detail. It is demonstrated that the correction for the membrane penetration error is indispensable for a realistic estimation of the cyclic resistance ratio in coarse- and medium-grained liquefiable soils. A Mathematica code for the correction of laboratory data is given. An analogous Matlab code is available from the authors. Without the correction many results could lie far on the unsafe side. This is the case especially for the undrained cyclic loading.
The work is focused on the formulation of a thermodynamically–based constitutive theory for granular, cemented geomaterials, often characterized by a open structure with high porosity and voids of large diameter. Upon mechanical degradation processes such as bond rupture and grain crushing, these material undergo large volumetric and shear strains, and in some cases the deformations are so large that the usual assumption of linearized kinematics may be not applicable. In the first part of this work, the theory of hyperplasticity is extended to the finite deformation regime by adopting a multiplicative split of the deformation gradient into an elastic and a plastic part, under the assumption of material isotropy. Grain breakage and bond damage processes are accounted for through two micromechanically–inspired internal variables. A specific constitutive model for carbonatic cemented sands and calcarenites is proposed as a relevant example of application. In the second part, an implicit stress–point algorithm has been developed which is amenable to closed form linearization, for the implementation of the model into standard FE platforms. A series of numerical tests have demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. The simulation of plane strain biaxial tests, modeled as boundary–value problems, has highlighted the role played by geometric non–linearity in determining the evolution of the specimen deformation upon reaching a bifurcation condition.
Fully saturated loose coarse-grained soils are known to be prone to liquefaction. Conventional laboratory tests for soil liquefaction include usually cyclic testing in triaxial apparatus. However, such investigations are complicated and time-consuming. The objective of the outlined work is to evaluate the sensitivity of different sands to density change with respect to liquefaction using a relatively simple method. This method enables a fast setup of the tested specimen and a subsequent investigation of the pore water pressure build-up during cyclic shearing within a short time. The results have confirmed a good repeatability of the new method as well as an expected dependence of the pore pressure build-up on initial density. Validation of the method was performed using the results of cyclic triaxial tests. A good agreement between both methods was observed regarding the rate of the pore pressure increase with initial density. Furthermore, it was shown that the initial fabric of soil has a larger impact on the pore pressure build-up during cyclic loading than the relative density.
A computationally efficient and open sourced methodology designed for the investigation of rock matrix heterogeneities and their effect on pre- and post- fracture Acoustic Emission (AE) distributions is presented. First, an image analysis method is proposed for building a statistical model representing rock heterogeneity. The statistical model is generalized and implemented into a discrete element contact model where it efficiently simulates the presence of defects and locally tough regions. The coupling of the heterogeneity model, discrete element model, and acoustic emission model is demonstrated using a numerical three point bending test. The shape parameter of the statistical model, which controls heterogeneity magnitude, is found to control the spatial width of the acoustic emission distribution generated during failure. The same acoustic emission distribution trend is observed in literature for rocks containing various magnitudes of heterogeneity. Further analysis of the numerical AE activity reveals that larger AE events are located directly along the fracture and they are linearly related to their number of constituent interactions. As such, an AE interaction count threshold is identified to distinguish between fracture and damage AE activity. These results demonstrate the ability of the presented methodology to investigate the location and energy release associated with large fracture events for various levels of heterogeneity.
This paper presents the state of the art of the theory of rock damage and healing mechanics, with a particular emphasis on the strategies available to relate the micro-scale of crystals, cracks and pores to the scale of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV). We focus on mechanical degradation and recovery of stiffness and strength. Damage and healing models formulated in the author’s group are used as examples to illustrate and compare the reviewed micro-macro approaches, which include fabric enrichment, micromechanical formulations and homogenization schemes. This manuscript was written for doctoral students or researchers relatively new to the field of damage mechanics of geomaterials. Equations are provided to explain how to formulate a thermodynamically consistent model from scratch. Reviewing damage and healing modeling strategies led to the following conclusions: (i) The framework of hyperplasticity, which does not require any postulate on the existence or uniqueness of yield functions and which automatically ensures thermodynamic consistency, was never applied to Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). There may be an avenue to improve state-of-the-art damage and healing models in a similar framework of “hyper-damage mechanics”. (ii) In damage softening models, the mesh dependence of the width of the damage localization zone is currently alleviated by non-local regularization. Perhaps the next step is to couple micro-macro damage and healing models at the REV scale to discrete fracture mechanics at a larger scale to understand how damage and healing localization occurs. (iii) There may be an opportunity to use fabric-enriched models to capture the effect of microstructure organization on both mechanical properties and permeability. (iv) Coupling chemo-mechanical damage and healing processes across the scales would be useful to model the competition between damagre and healing whenever both can occur at the same temperature and pressure conditions. (v) Many challenges still exist to implement healing models in the Finite Element Method, especially in regards to the mapping of net damage.
The dilatancy/contractancy of soil is of particular importance for compaction, consolidation, liquefaction, etc. Interestingly, constitutive relations are often unsatisfactory in modelling volume changes in the sense that their predictions deviate considerably from each other. This scatter is pronounced in problems with stress rotation. Therefore, in this paper some selected constitutive relations are investigated with respect to their performance at stress rotation. The obtained numerical simulations are compared with each other and also with experimental results from the and the hollow cylinder apparatuses.
A very simple frictional plasticity model for a granular material is presented, including the effects of dilation. The novelty lies in the fact that this is described within the hyperplasticity framework, expressed using the terminology of convex analysis. This allows a consistent mathematical treatment of the dilation constraint. The Fenchel Dual is used to link the force and flow potentials. The resulting model accommodates non-associated flow within a rigorous mathematical framework that ensures compliance with the Laws of Thermodynamics.
The paper examines the problem of the open configuration created when a hydraulic fracture fluid containing a granular proppant is introduced into the fracture. The mathematical modelling examines the problem of an extended cracked region that is wedged open by a granular material present over a finite region of the crack. The combination of the geostatic stress state and the contact stress created between the granular proppant and the elastic rock mass is used to develop a consistency relationship for estimating the dimension of the region of the fracture that will remain open when the pressures applied to create the fracture are released. The interactive mechanics of the fracture and the proppant has an influence on the geometry of the open region that provides the pathway for extraction of the resource.
This Editorial is the first publication from the journal Open Geomechanics, a radically open-access scientific journal for Geomechanics Research, edited by Geomechanics researchers for Geomechanics researchers. We believe that the results of scientific research should be available to all. For this reason, this journal is committed to publishing high quality work within the remit of diamond open access — free to publish and read. Our aim is to become a recognised journal in the field of geomechanics, and a launchpad for new ideas for the dissemination of research in this field. Research manuscripts (in any geomechanics related topics such as analytical, numerical or experimental studies) or case studies, negative results, as well as replicability or reproducibility studies are welcome.