Effects of Particle Shape on the Shear Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus of 3D Printed Sand Analogs
Open Geomechanics, Volume 3 (2022), article no. 1, 18 p.

Isolating the effects of individual particle properties (e.g. shape, size, mineralogy, surface roughness) on the mechanical behavior of naturally occurring coarse-grained soils is a significant challenge in experimental studies. This challenge can be addressed by recent advances in 3D printing technology which enable generation of artificial sand-sized particles with independent control over particle size and shape. In this study, bender element tests are conducted to examine the isolated effects of particle shape on the shear wave velocity and shear modulus of 3D printed sand analogs. The experimental results show that the shear wave velocity and shear modulus of the 3D printed sand specimens exhibit a relationship with mean effective stress that is in agreement to that reported for natural sands. The specimens composed of 3D printed sands with greater particle roundness and sphericity exhibit greater shear wave velocity and shear modulus for a given void ratio, relative density, and mean effective stress. The changes in shear wave velocity can be captured in terms of differences in individual particle shape parameters such as roundness and sphericity as well as combined particle shape parameters such as regularity. Regression analysis is used to develop relationships between shear wave velocity and particle shape parameters and void ratio, which are shown to be in agreement with previously-published relationships and to reliably predict the shear wave velocity of natural sands. The results presented herein highlight the usefulness of testing 3D printed soils to identify functional trends and dependencies between soil response parameters and intrinsic properties. However, this requires verification of the results against published trends and assessment of the possible effects of the differences in constituent material between the 3D printed and the natural soils.

Received:
Revised:
Accepted:
Published online:
DOI: 10.5802/ogeo.9
Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, particle shape, shear wave velocity, sand
Ahmed, Sheikh Sharif 1; Martinez, Alejandro 1

1 Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis USA
License: CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0
Copyrights: The authors retain unrestricted copyrights and publishing rights
@article{OGEO_2022__3__A1_0,
     author = {Ahmed, Sheikh Sharif and Martinez, Alejandro},
     title = {Effects of {Particle} {Shape} on the {Shear} {Wave} {Velocity} and {Shear} {Modulus} of {3D} {Printed} {Sand} {Analogs}},
     journal = {Open Geomechanics},
     eid = {1},
     publisher = {Alert Geomaterials},
     volume = {3},
     year = {2022},
     doi = {10.5802/ogeo.9},
     language = {en},
     url = {https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.9/}
}
TY  - JOUR
TI  - Effects of Particle Shape on the Shear Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus of 3D Printed Sand Analogs
JO  - Open Geomechanics
PY  - 2022
DA  - 2022///
VL  - 3
PB  - Alert Geomaterials
UR  - https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.9/
UR  - https://doi.org/10.5802/ogeo.9
DO  - 10.5802/ogeo.9
LA  - en
ID  - OGEO_2022__3__A1_0
ER  - 
%0 Journal Article
%T Effects of Particle Shape on the Shear Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus of 3D Printed Sand Analogs
%J Open Geomechanics
%D 2022
%V 3
%I Alert Geomaterials
%U https://doi.org/10.5802/ogeo.9
%R 10.5802/ogeo.9
%G en
%F OGEO_2022__3__A1_0
Ahmed, Sheikh Sharif; Martinez, Alejandro. Effects of Particle Shape on the Shear Wave Velocity and Shear Modulus of 3D Printed Sand Analogs. Open Geomechanics, Volume 3 (2022), article  no. 1, 18 p. doi : 10.5802/ogeo.9. https://opengeomechanics.centre-mersenne.org/articles/10.5802/ogeo.9/

[1] Adamidis, Orestis; Alber, Simone; Anastasopoulos, Ioannis Assessment of three-dimensional printing of granular media for geotechnical applications, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Volume 43 (2020) no. 3 | DOI

[2] Altuhafi, Fatin N; Coop, Matthew R; Georgiannou, Vasiliki N Effect of particle shape on the mechanical behavior of natural sands, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 142 (2016) no. 12, p. 04016071 | DOI

[3] Ahmed, Sheikh Sharif; Martinez, Alejandro Modeling the mechanical behavior of coarse-grained soil using additive manufactured particle analogs, Acta Geotechnica, Volume 15 (2020) no. 10, pp. 2829-2847 | DOI

[4] Ahmed, Sheikh Sharif; Martinez, Alejandro Triaxial compression behavior of 3D printed and natural sands, Granular Matter, Volume 23 (2021) no. 4, pp. 1-21 | DOI

[5] Athanassiadis, Athanasios G; Miskin, Marc Z; Kaplan, Paul; Rodenberg, Nicholas; Lee, Seung Hwan; Merritt, Jason; Brown, Eric; Amend, John; Lipson, Hod; Jaeger, Heinrich M Particle shape effects on the stress response of granular packings, Soft Matter, Volume 10 (2014) no. 1, pp. 48-59 | DOI

[6] Bartake, PP; Singh, DN Studies on the determination of shear wave velocity in sands, Geomechanics and Geoengineering, Volume 2 (2007) no. 1, pp. 41-49 | DOI

[7] Braun, Philipp; Tzortzopoulos, Georgios; Stefanou, Ioannis Design of Sand-Based, 3-D-Printed Analog Faults With Controlled Frictional Properties, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Volume 126 (2021) no. 5, p. e2020JB020520 | DOI

[8] Bui, Man T Influence of some particle characteristics on the small strain response of granular materials, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Southampton (2009)

[9] Cavarretta, Ignazio; Coop, Matthew; O’Sullivan, Catherine The influence of particle characteristics on the behaviour of coarse grained soils, Géotechnique, Volume 60 (2010) no. 6, pp. 413-423 | DOI

[10] Cho, Gye-Chun; Dodds, Jake; Santamarina, J. Carlos Particle Shape Effects on Packing Density, Stiffness, and Strength: Natural and Crushed Sands, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 132 (2006) no. 5, pp. 591-602 | DOI

[11] Chang, Nien-Yin; Ko, Hon-Yim Effects of grain size distribution on dynamic properties and liquefaction potential of granular soils (1982) no. R82-103 (Research Report)

[12] Cascante, Giovanni; Santamarina, J Carlos Interparticle contact behavior and wave propagation, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 122 (1996) no. 10, pp. 831-839 | DOI

[13] Carey, Trevor J; Stone, Nicholas; Kutter, Bruce L Grain size analysis and maximum and minimum dry density testing of Ottawa F-65 sand for LEAP-UCD-2017, Model tests and numerical simulations of liquefaction and lateral spreading, Springer, 2020, pp. 31-44 | DOI

[14] Cha, Minsu; Santamarina, J Carlos; Kim, Hak-Sung; Cho, Gye-Chun Small-strain stiffness, shear-wave velocity, and soil compressibility, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 140 (2014) no. 10, p. 06014011 | DOI

[15] Chung, Riley M; Yokel, Felix Y; Drnevich, VP Evaluation of dynamic properties of sands by resonant column testing, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Volume 7 (1984) no. 2, pp. 60-69 | DOI

[16] Dutta, TT; Otsubo, M; Kuwano, R; O’Sullivan, C Evolution of shear wave velocity during triaxial compression, Soils and Foundations, Volume 60 (2020) no. 6, pp. 1357-1370 | DOI

[17] Guida, Giulia; Viggiani, Giulia MB; Casini, Francesca Multi-scale morphological descriptors from the fractal analysis of particle contour, Acta Geotechnica, Volume 15 (2020) no. 5, pp. 1067-1080 | DOI

[18] Hardin, Bobby O; Black, William L Sand stiffness under various triaxial stresses, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Volume 92 (1966) no. 2, pp. 27-42 | DOI

[19] Hanaor, DAH; Gan, Y; Revay, M; Airey, DW; Einav, I 3D printable geomaterials, Géotechnique, Volume 66 (2016) no. 4, pp. 323-332 | DOI

[20] Hussien, Mahmoud N; Karray, Mourad Shear wave velocity as a geotechnical parameter: an overview, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Volume 53 (2015) no. 2, pp. 252-272 | DOI

[21] Hafez, Ahmed; Liu, Qi; Finkbeiner, Thomas; Alouhali, Raed A; Moellendick, Timothy E; Santamarina, J Carlos The effect of particle shape on discharge and clogging, Scientific Reports, Volume 11 (2021) no. 1, pp. 1-11 | DOI

[22] Hardin, Bobby O; Richart Jr, FE Elastic wave velocities in granular soils, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Volume 89 (1963) no. 1, pp. 33-65 | DOI

[23] Iwasaki, Toshio; Tatsuoka, Fumio Effects of grain size and grading on dynamic shear moduli of sands, Soils and Foundations, Volume 17 (1977) no. 3, pp. 19-35 | DOI

[24] Jiménez, Mariano; Romero, Luis; Domínguez, Iris A; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel Additive manufacturing technologies: an overview about 3D printing methods and future prospects, Complexity, Volume 2019 (2019) | DOI

[25] Kirkpatrick, WM Effects of grain size and grading on the shearing behaviour of granular materials, Proceedings of the sixth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (1965), pp. 273-277

[26] Kittu, A; Watters, M; Cavarretta, I; Bernhardt-Barry, ML Characterization of additive manufactured particles for DEM validation studies, Granular Matter, Volume 21 (2019) no. 3, pp. 1-15 | DOI

[27] Lee, Shannonh; Stokoe, Kenne Investigation of low-amplitude shear wave velocity in anisotropic material (1986) no. GR86-6 (Geotechnical Engineering Report)

[28] Lee, Changho; Suh, Hyoung Suk; Yoon, Boyeong; Yun, Tae Sup Particle shape effect on thermal conductivity and shear wave velocity in sands, Acta Geotechnica, Volume 12 (2017) no. 3, pp. 615-625 | DOI

[29] Liu, X; Yang, J Shear wave velocity in sand: effect of grain shape, Géotechnique, Volume 68 (2018) no. 8, pp. 742-748 | DOI

[30] Liu, Xingyang; Zou, Degao; Liu, Jingmao; Zheng, Bowen; Zhou, Chenguang; Bai, Junsong A gradation-dependent particle shape factor for characterizing small-strain shear modulus of sand-gravel mixtures, Transportation Geotechnics, Volume 28 (2021), p. 100548 | DOI

[31] Li, Yingzhen; Zhou, Hang; Liu, Hanlong; Ding, Xuanming; Zhang, Wengang Geotechnical properties of 3D-printed transparent granular soil, Acta Geotechnica, Volume 16 (2021) no. 6, pp. 1789-1800 | DOI

[32] Marschi, N Dean; Chan, Clarence K; Seed, H Bolton Evaluation of properties of rockfill materials, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Volume 98 (1972) no. 1, pp. 95-114 | DOI

[33] Menq, Farn-Yuh Dynamic properties of sandy and gravelly soils, Ph. D. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin (2003)

[34] Miskin, Marc Z; Jaeger, Heinrich M Adapting granular materials through artificial evolution, Nature Materials, Volume 12 (2013) no. 4, pp. 326-331 | DOI

[35] Matsumura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takaaki; Mizutani, Takaaki; Bathurst, Richard J Manufacture of bonded granular soil using X-ray CT scanning and 3D printing, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Volume 40 (2017) no. 6, pp. 1000-1010 | DOI

[36] Mitchell, James Kenneth; Soga, Kenichi et al. Fundamentals of soil behavior, John Wiley & Sons New York, 2005

[37] Ngo, Tuan D; Kashani, Alireza; Imbalzano, Gabriele; Nguyen, Kate TQ; Hui, David Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges, Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 143 (2018), pp. 172-196 | DOI

[38] Najmon, Joel C; Raeisi, Sajjad; Tovar, Andres Review of additive manufacturing technologies and applications in the aerospace industry, Additive Manufacturing for the Aerospace Industry (2019), pp. 7-31 | DOI

[39] Otsubo, Masahide; O’sullivan, Catherine; Sim, Way Way; Ibraim, Erdin Quantitative assessment of the influence of surface roughness on soil stiffness, Géotechnique, Volume 65 (2015) no. 8, pp. 694-700 | DOI

[40] Patel, A; Bartake, PP; Singh, DN An empirical relationship for determining shear wave velocity in granular materials accounting for grain morphology, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Volume 32 (2009) no. 1, pp. 1-10 | DOI

[41] Payan, Meghdad; Khoshghalb, Arman; Senetakis, Kostas; Khalili, Nasser Effect of Particle Shape and Validity of Gmax Models for Sand: A critical review and a new expression, Computers and Geotechnics, Volume 72 (2016), pp. 28-41 | DOI

[42] Payan, Meghdad; Khoshghalb, Arman; Senetakis, Kostas; Khalili, Nasser Small-strain stiffness of sand subjected to stress anisotropy, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Volume 88 (2016), pp. 143-151 | DOI

[43] Peerun, MI; Ong, Dominic Ek Leong; Desha, C; Oh, Erwin; Choo, Chung Siung Advances in the Study of Micromechanical Behaviour for Granular Materials Using Micro-CT Scanner and 3D Printing, International Conference of the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (2021), pp. 911-918 | DOI

[44] Santamarina, J Carlos Soil behavior at the microscale: particle forces, Soil behavior and soft ground construction, 2003, pp. 25-56 | DOI

[45] Senetakis, Kostas; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Pitilakis, Kyriazis The small-strain shear modulus and damping ratio of quartz and volcanic sands, Geotechnical Testing Journal, Volume 35 (2012) no. 6, pp. 964-980 | DOI

[46] Sharifipour, Mohammad; Dano, Christophe; Hicher, Pierre-Yves Wave velocities in assemblies of glass beads using bender-extender elements, 17th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference (2004)

[47] Su, Yu Feng; Lee, Seung Jae; Sukumaran, Beena Influence of particle morphology simplification on the simulation of granular material behavior, Granular Matter, Volume 22 (2020) no. 1, pp. 1-12 | DOI

[48] Shin, H; Santamarina, Juan Carlos Role of particle angularity on the mechanical behavior of granular mixtures, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 139 (2013) no. 2, pp. 353-355 | DOI

[49] Vesić, Aleksandar S; Clough, G Wayne Behavior of granular materials under high stresses, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Volume 94 (1968) no. 3, pp. 661-688 | DOI

[50] Vangla, Prashanth; Latha, Gali Madhavi Influence of particle size on the friction and interfacial shear strength of sands of similar morphology, International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering, Volume 1 (2015) no. 1, p. 6 | DOI

[51] Wadell, Hakon Volume, shape, and roundness of rock particles, The Journal of Geology, Volume 40 (1932) no. 5, pp. 443-451 | DOI

[52] Wichtmann, T; Triantafyllidis, Th Influence of the grain-size distribution curve of quartz sand on the small strain shear modulus G max, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 135 (2009) no. 10, pp. 1404-1418 | DOI

[53] Wei, Deheng; Wang, Zhongzheng; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Gan, Yixiang Permeability of Uniformly Graded 3D Printed Granular Media, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 48 (2021) no. 5 | DOI

[54] Wei, Deheng; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Budi A simple method for particle shape generation with spherical harmonics, Powder Technology, Volume 330 (2018), pp. 284-291 | DOI

[55] Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Tang, Sheng-Chuan; Liang, Yue Effects of particle size distribution on shear strength of accumulation soil, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 139 (2013) no. 11, pp. 1994-1997 | DOI

[56] Xiao, Yang; Long, Leihang; Matthew Evans, T; Zhou, Hai; Liu, Hanlong; Stuedlein, Armin W Effect of particle shape on stress-dilatancy responses of medium-dense sands, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Volume 145 (2019) no. 2, p. 04018105 | DOI

[57] Yang, J; Gu, XQ Shear stiffness of granular material at small strains: does it depend on grain size?, Géotechnique, Volume 63 (2013) no. 2, pp. 165-179 | DOI

[58] Yamashita, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Takayuki; Nakata, Yukio; Mikami, Takeko; Fujiwara, Teruyuki; Shibuya, Satoru Interpretation of international parallel test on the measurement of Gmax using bender elements, Soils and Foundations, Volume 49 (2009) no. 4, pp. 631-650 | DOI

[59] Youd, TL Factors controlling maximum and minimum densities of sands, Evaluation of Relative Density and its Role in Geotechnical Projects Involving Cohesionless Soils, ASTM International, 1973, pp. 98-112 | DOI

[60] Zheng, Junxing; Hryciw, Roman D Traditional soil particle sphericity, roundness and surface roughness by computational geometry, Géotechnique, Volume 65 (2015) no. 6, pp. 494-506 | DOI

Cited by Sources: